Let’s Learn About Europe!

Pre-history periods in Europe are separated into several eras. It began with Paleolithics era which are separated into two, the lower and the upper part. The lower part was marked as the occurrence of Homo erectus and Homo ergaster, while the upper part was popular as the Neanderthals era. Mesolithic was the continuous era of Paleolithic where people had already used stones and hunting tools to catch animals. Then people planned to settle by built a traditional shelter. In this era, mining and trading became popular as they traded for obsidian, amber, and shell.

As the time went by, people in Mediterranean traded with North Africans and Egyptians in the Bronze era. They became more advanced on producing tombs and armor. In similar, Central and Northern Europeans lived in more modern settlements and developed the forging and agricultural sectors, including the making of honeybees. It all happened in the early Iron era, while Romans rose in the late of Iron age.

1. Paleolithics
a. Lower Paleolithic
The occurrence of the earliest inhabitants, Homo erectus and Homo ergaster at Dmanisi, Georgia. The  use of fire was also happened during this period.
b. Upper Paleolithic
The Neanderthal. The beginning of social organization, near rivers location, more advanced hunting technique, and burials method.

2. Azilian and Mesolithic
a. Azilian
These people have to deal with melting glaciers, rising sea levels, and disappearance of large mammals. Therefore, thay have to built a new strategy to survive.
b. Mesolithic
The development of stone and hunting tools (fish hooks, nets, canoes, and skis). There were large game huntings to catch red deer and wild pig and small game trapping to catch aquatic mammals.

3. Neolithic or Chalcolithic
Settlement planning began in some areas. Stonehenge were built. The house were built of timber. Copper and gold were mined, smelted, hammered, and cast. There were also wide trade networks to trade obsidian, shell, and amber.

4. Bronze Age
a. Early Bronze Age
Started in the Mediterranean, and spreaded into Mycenae, Phaistos, Athens, Sparta, and Xeropolis (mostly Greece). They mostly called “sea people”.
b. Late Bronze Age
It fueled by trade with the Anatolians, North Africans, and Egyptians. Bronze age people done so many works, such as tombs, public architectures, and armor.

5. Iron Age
a. Late Iron Age
Greek city-states began to expand, and the trading of iron, bronze, and stone continued to blossomed. However, Roman Empire rose, and they won over some kingdoms in Mediterranean.
b. Early Iron Age
Modest settlements, farmers, and herders lived in several areas in Central and Northern Europe. There was the continuity of bronze casting and smelting. The agriculture sector expanded to honeybees and horses as draft animals.

6. Roman Empire
Transition from a republic to an imperial force. They developed their own cities, such as Rome, Lutetia, Brixia, Bibracte, Noviodunum, and many more. They also gained control over most of Europe.

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